The First Step to Developing the Next Generation Lead-Acid Battery: Positive Paste Structure

The adoption of stop/start technology, development of autonomous driving vehicles and acceptance of electric vehicles has opened the door for the next generation of lead-acid batteries. Auxiliary batteries are now common in most vehicles to ensure safety and EV fast-charging stations will require energy storage to supplement the utility’s electrical infrastructure. For lead-acid batteries to be the energy storage system of choice, longer cycle-life, improve charge efficiency, and high reliability is necessary while maintaining recyclability and costs. The final design may be flooded, GEL, AGM, flat-plate, tubular, prismatic, spiral wound, or bipolar. However, the  key for success starts with improvements to the positive active material.

In this presentation, the crystal structure of the cured positive paste is evaluated to understand  improving the impact on performance. This includes positive plates with the following paste: regular 3BS paste, steamed-cured 4BS paste (not seeded by 4BS crystals), cured-seeded 4BS paste, and cured paste seeded by chemically treated 4BS paste. Full characterization of cured and formed positive active material  has been undertaken with  XRD, BET, SEM, Helium Pycnometry, Mercury Porosimetry, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (TGA/DSC), and wet chemical (PbSO4, PbO2). The results will show optimized battery performance can be achieved by carefully choosing the best paste formula and manufacturing processes.


Mr Enqin Gao Director of R&D, Hammond Group Inc., United States

Enqin Gao is Research and Development Director at Hammond Group USA. Hammond is a global manufacturer of paste additives and lead oxides with manufacturing facilities in Malaysia, England, and the United States. Enqin earned his master’s degree in physical chemistry from Peking University and a Bachelor of Science in chemistry from Wuhan University. He also studied materials science and engineering as a PhD student at Iowa State University. With over 20 years of experience in lead-acid battery working for Trojan Battery and Camel Group, Enqin in enthusiastic in improving battery performance.

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