20th Asian Battery
Conference and Exhibition

Tuesday 5 – Friday 8 September 2023
Sokha Siem Reap Resort & Convention Center

The First Step to Developing the Next Generation Lead-Acid Battery: Positive Paste Structure

The adoption of stop/start technology, development of autonomous driving vehicles and acceptance of electric vehicles has opened the door for the next generation of lead-acid batteries. Auxiliary batteries are now common in most vehicles to ensure safety and EV fast-charging stations will require energy storage to supplement the utility’s electrical infrastructure. For lead-acid batteries to be the energy storage system of choice, longer cycle-life, improve charge efficiency, and high reliability is necessary while maintaining recyclability and costs. The final design may be flooded, GEL, AGM, flat-plate, tubular, prismatic, spiral wound, or bipolar. However, the  key for success starts with improvements to the positive active material.

In this presentation, the crystal structure of the cured positive paste is evaluated to understand  improving the impact on performance. This includes positive plates with the following paste: regular 3BS paste, steamed-cured 4BS paste (not seeded by 4BS crystals), cured-seeded 4BS paste, and cured paste seeded by chemically treated 4BS paste. Full characterization of cured and formed positive active material  has been undertaken with  XRD, BET, SEM, Helium Pycnometry, Mercury Porosimetry, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (TGA/DSC), and wet chemical (PbSO4, PbO2). The results will show optimized battery performance can be achieved by carefully choosing the best paste formula and manufacturing processes.


Mr Enqin Gao Director of Research and Development, Hammond Group, Inc.

Enqin Gao, Director of Research and Development at Hammond Group, has been in the lead acid industry for 20 years, including nearly 11 years in lead acid battery companies in the US and China. He joined Hammond in 2017 and brings a wealth of knowledge and experience to Hammond’s efforts supporting Long Duration Energy Storage solutions.

Gao holds a Masters Degree in Physical Chemistry from Peking University and earned his BS from Wuhan University. He pursued further studies in Materials Science and Engineering at Iowa State University.

Having worked in the manufacturing side of the industry, including employment with Trojan Battery and Camel Group, Gao is well experienced with grid casting, paste mixing, pasting, curing, formation, and battery assembly. His titles over the years have included Chief Engineer, Product Specialist, Research Chemist, Supervisor, R&D Engineer, Process Engineer, Owner, and Manager.

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