A ‘lead–carbon’ battery, which incorporates a selected carbon allotrope in the negative plate, exhibits attractive cycle-life and performance under partial state-of-charge (PSoC) duty. The Narada REX-C lead–carbon battery, in particular, shows a significantly increased cycle-life which, under medium-rate deep-cycle duty, is nearly 3 to 6 times longer than that of a conventional carbon-free battery design. Implementing this ‘lead–carbon’ battery in an electrical energy storage system (EESS) enables very efficient and economical daily peak-power shaving and photovoltaic energy storage time-shift service. In comparison with other electrochemical energy storage technologies, the ‘lead–carbon’ battery has the best comprehensive performance when low cost (especially the cost of energy storage during operating life), easy scalability, intrinsic safety and long PSoC cycle-life are key requirements. During the past three years, more than 300 MWh of ‘lead–carbon’ EESS facilities have been installed in China by the Narada Power Source Company. In the near future, additional technical advances in understanding carbon and lead sponge interaction, as well as refinements in battery design and manufacturing that are under development, will enhance the attractiveness of the Narada technology and thus further increase its share in the large-scale energy storage battery market. The presentation will report key observations, test data and an overview of ‘lead-carbon’ EESS installations.
Narada Power Source Co.
Director of Basic Research Department
Ms. Jiayuan Xiang has a PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from Zhejiang University, China. She joined the Narada Power Source Company as a senior scientist in 2011. Her work is focused on the research and development of new materials and energy storage technologies. Dr. Xiang is also involved in lead–carbon battery research activities supported by a Science and Technology Program of the Zhejiang Provincial Government.