A variety of applications ranging from micro-hybrid cars to solar energy storage require lead–acid batteries to operate under partial state-of-charge (PSoC) conditions. Under such service, the main failure mode is the irreversible formation of lead sulfation in negative active material (NAM), which leads to reduced capacity and shorter cycle life. Carbon additives have pronounced positive effect on charge acceptance (i.e., minimize sulfation problem) and cycleability. Carbon nanotubes offer great promise as NAM additives through the endowment of high surface area and added electrical conductivity. Nevertheless, the incorporation of high surface-area carbon enhances the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at the negative plate. This presentation examines the prospects of using glycine incorporated leady oxide (GLO) as an active material in place of conventional leady oxide for negative active mass (NAM). Cells constructed with GLO have been evaluated using galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry. Results show an enhanced capacity and higher overpotential for the HER as compared with control cells using carbon black. Non-conventional, two-dimensional, nanostructured materials — such as molybdenum disulfide and boron carbon nitride sheets — have also been examined as prospective NAM additives.
CSIR- Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Sundar Mayavan holds a PhD degree from the University of South Australia. He now leads the lead–acid battery group and CSIR-Battery Performance Testing and Evaluation Centre at the CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI), India. His current activities include two sponsored research projects with TVS Motors and Reliance Industries (both based at India) aimed towards the development of advanced lead–acid batteries.