In 2016, over 20 million micro-hybrid (start–stop) vehicles were powered by advanced lead–acid batteries and this number is expected to grow to 35 million in 2020. Although carbon additives are successfully used in commercial start–stop lead–acid batteries for achieving high charge-acceptance and cycle-life, further improvements are required to compete with lithium-ion batteries. Greater emphasis must be placed on dynamic charge-acceptance (DCA) and high-temperature operation so as (i) to maintain a competitive advantage of lead–acid batteries for next-generation micro-hybrid cars and (ii) to gain an improved understanding of how carbon additives impact all performance aspects.
A conceptual model of the impact of carbon morphology on lead–carbon electrodes and factors that impact charge-acceptance, cycle-life and high-temperature water consumption will be discussed. Data will be presented from tests on batteries that contain a new PBX® carbon additive with unique surface chemistry which enables reduced hydrogen evolution rates on the carbon surface without compromising the benefits of high DCA and cycle-life in start–stop automotive applications. In addition, results from tests on cells that have new PBX additives and are designed for deep-cycling applications such as e-bikes and energy storage will be reported.
Global AD Manager
Paolina Atanassova has a PhD in Chemistry from Sofia University, Bulgaria. Between 2003 and 2013 she served as the R&D Project Manager at Cabot Corporation where her work focused on new materials for batteries and fuel cells. Since 2010, Paolina has led the development of novel carbon additives for advanced lead–acid batteries. Currently, Paolina is the Global Application Development Manager for the Energy Business in Cabot’s Performance Materials Segment.